Rabbit haemorrhagic disease or rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly contagious disease that mainly affects rabbits of the Oryctolagus cuniculus species but has also been confirmed to affect various species of cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) and hares (Lepus spp.). RHD is also known as rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease or viral hemorrhagic disease (VHD), rabbit calicivirus disease (RCD), rabbit calici-virus disease (RCVD), and viral hemorrhagic disease of rabbits (VHDR).
It is caused by the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus or rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), also known as rabbit calicivirus (RCV).
Symptoms will generally manifest in three ways:
- Peracute: animals will be found dead within a few hours of eating and behaving normally. This is most common. Many rabbits with the North American RHDV2 strain will not exhibit any external hemorrhaging (e.g. blood from nose).
- Acute: affected animals will show lethargy and a heightened fever (>40°C) with an increased respiratory rate, usually passing away within 12h.
- Subacute: rabbits will show mild or subclinical signs from which they recover and become immune to further RHDV.
As the USDA writes,
The RHDV2 virus is very resistant to extreme temperatures. It can be spread through direct contact or exposure to an infected rabbit’s excretions or blood. The virus can also survive and spread from carcasses, food, water, and any contaminated materials. People can spread the virus indirectly by carrying it on their clothing and shoes.
There is no treatment or cure for RHD. Most cleaners are ineffective at killing the virus. As a result, it is highly recommended to vaccinate your rabbit for their safety if a veterinary clinic nearby offers the service.
Please check out the Facebook group Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease News Network for the most current global news and resources on the disease.
For more resources on the disease, please check out the following:
- rhd.of-africa.com website
In South Africa, there is currently one vaccine brand effective against RHDV that may be available for use:
- Eravac (Spain) – single dose, 7 days for onset of immunity, minimum 30 days of age
Veterinarians in South Africa offering RHDV vaccinations
Please inquire with your current rabbit veterinary clinic to see if they may have obtained a supply of an RHDV vaccine. Many of the following veterinary clinics may not be accepting new clients or will require at least 2-3 weeks before an appointment is available for a new client. Some clinics may also only have limited supplies.
This information is provided only for your convenience and in no way should be considered an endorsement by the website. The following table has been compiled from reliable resources that have indicated that the listed clinics will treat rabbits. We cannot guarantee your satisfaction with any veterinarian - please call and ask your own questions before using a clinic listed below.
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